Electronic Commerce is for the age of Information Technology what mercantilism, the hunt for gold and the conquest of new lands have been for the age of discovery. Like the prow of a big fishing boat, it attracts toward itself all different interests and elements of society, and it will go away new discoveries and changes in its wake. The good sized networking of world via optic fibers, satellites and wireless communication is growing a brand new international network and a new international market, wherein maximum of the international locations must participate. It is strengthening, almost sarcastically, the identity of small businesses, isolated communities and minority pastimes and using them closer to a less steeply-priced social and monetary activity and widening their possibilities. And most importantly, it is empowering small companies to compete with multinational businesses and allowing clients to search the world for precisely what they wanted.
E-Commerce essentially way the usage of networks (Internet) to perform all the activities involved in business control and operation: shopping for and selling of services and products, era and partner search, managing opposite numbers, choosing the maximum convenient transportation and insurances, acting bank transactions, paying and billing, speaking with employer salesmen, picking up orders, and every other activity essential for trading.
A corporation may be able to submit a complete catalog of it is services and products on the Internet, which may be continuously updated to give new or up to date products, proving a massive virtual showcase for capability customers, a means to talk with customers and in that manner, adjusts it’s offer to their requirements; whilst on the equal time it’s going to get get entry to to virtual markets wherein it is able to purchase what it desires.
Through necessary systems already underneath improvement, one agency will connect with other groups located everywhere inside the world, to buy and sell, selecting the goods and services which first-class meets its wishes from a massive network. And it is genuine that this revolution involves us all.
2. BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS (B2B)
B2B e-trade means agencies buying from and selling to every different on line. It automates and streamlines the process of buying and promoting the intermediate products. It presents greater dependable updating of enterprise records. B2B makes product information to be had globally and updates it in actual time. Hence, purchasing enterprise can take benefit of big quantity of product facts. 
Now, we must realize what are the entities of B2B e-commerce & their concerns:
Selling organization: with advertising and marketing management attitude.
Buying corporation: with procurement management perspective.
Electronic middleman: A 1/3 party intermediating provider issuer (the scope of the provider may be extended to encompass the order success ).
Deliverer: who must satisfy the JIT (Just in Time Delivery)
Network platform: which includes the Internet, Intranet, and Extranet.
Protocols and communique: inclusive of EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) and assessment buying, likely using software program retailers.
Back-end Facts machine: in all likelihood applied using the Intranet and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems.
B2B e-trade implies that each the dealers and consumers are enterprise businesses. It covers a huge spectrum of packages that enable an company or business to form digital dating with their distributors, re-dealers, providers, and other partners. B2B programs will provide businesses get admission to to the following varieties of statistics:
Product: Specifications, fees, income history.
Customer: Sales records and forecasts.
Supplier: Product traces and lead instances, income terms and situations.
Product technique: Capacities, commitments, product plans.
Transportation: Carries, lead-times, charges.
Inventory: Inventory stages, wearing costs, locations.
Supply chain Alliance: Key contacts, companions roles, and responsibilities, schedules.
Competitor: Benchmarking, aggressive product offering, market percentage.
Sales and advertising: Point of income (POS), promotions.
Supply chain process and performance: Process descriptions, overall performance measures, nice, shipping time and purchaser satisfaction.
2.1 How to get the satisfactory
People always want to get the best shot in existence. To supply a legitimate return for your funding you need to upload on time delivery and flavor of a few strategies. This approach ought to consist of right marketing, channel control, stable technology, strategic companions and excellent merchandise. Let us have a glance on each of them.
2.1.1 Just in Time shipping (JIT)
In one of these case (JIT), shipping materials and elements on time is a have to. Using E-Commerce, it’s far highly possible to assure JIT deliveries. Just in time shipping may be found out by way of the co-coordinated effort of transport- provider agency and suppliers stock coverage.
Quick shipping does now not necessarily mean JIT shipping, however the device for brief shipping is the backbone of JIT transport. For the B2B E-Commerce environment the development confirmation of the shipping date on the agreement degree is very crucial. 
2.1.2 Add techniques on your commercial enterprise
18.104.22.168 Direct Marketing
In a typical business employer, shopping for decisions, specially for merchandise over some thousand bucks, are made through institution of individuals. As a result, direct marketers want to extent the attain in their packages to exclusive functional regions and possibly even specific stages inside a purposeful vicinity.
There are multiple shoppers and influences in any enterprise who play a role in the shopping for decision. You might also recognise with reasonable reality who your primary target is, but secondary goal can be simply as important to reach. You might also should reach commercial enterprise consumers and influencers in three fundamental control areas (functional control, monetary control and widespread management) and do it at center to upper managerial, as well as technical stages. To do it corporations want accurate E-mail list, which they could broaden by using viewing agencies Websites and reviewing annual reports and other public files.
22.214.171.124 Relationship Marketing
Business shoppers are not constantly prepared to shop for products or services when you are ready to sell them. Factors you can not manage, together with the corporations’ budgeting manner, the need for added approvals, or buying methods, might also have an instantaneous effect on plans to buy. There can be a informal interest in the product however no longer an instantaneous want.
The clever B2B direct marketer compensates for this uncertainty by way of making sure a software of everyday, ongoing communications (often referred to as a continuity software) is in the front of potentialities periodically. This can be carried out through direct E-mail and by placing the statistics at the internet site.
2.1.2.Three Internet Marketing
Several capacity marketing techniques can be utilized in B2B E-Commerce advertising. These strategies may be classified into the following five classes:
Generating and qualifying leads with the Internet.
Using Internet activities to promote services and products.
Executing immediately achievement at the Internet.
Generating orders thru the Internet.
Enhancing patron dating with the Internet.
126.96.36.199 Channel Management
The first element is coherent advertising or channel control. The actual check of a a hit E-Commerce implementation is how properly it exploits the Internet to reach, capture and retain the right customers. Choosing which products and services can be supplied through which channel is also a essential selection.
E-commerce runs throughout multiple sales channels, together with direct, oblique and E-marketplaces. The desire of which marketplaces to use as income channels is a vital selection.
In addition to marketplaces, using oblique sales channels is likewise an area for explosive income opportunities. Enabling your selling companions to host your catalog, stock and fulfillment databases on their systems can create performance that grows their enterprise and yours. You also can keep your direct one-to-one trading dating with long term strategic carriers with the aid of “E-permitting” the complete business manner from the preliminary request for quote via order success to automated billing and price.
These channels create a state of affairs wherein the E-Commerce sell side platform should transact across multi-channel selling strategies –which brings us to the next detail of your strategy: technology.
Industry general gear often allow a vendor to construct and manipulate product catalogs and content as soon as and use them during the whole multi-channel promoting conduits. Evolving equipment and abilties assist you to develop patron friendly web web sites and win repeat clients via constructing consumer loyalty. The the front quit for e-trade promoting is an crucial piece of B2B success, connecting your new internet systems with your present systems. The 24*7 on line marketplace manner your E-business must be always to be had. IT infrastructure ought to offer greater performance, reliability, safety and process integration than a bricks-and-mortar surroundings. In addition, mainframes website hosting the databases and ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) structures running the management systems should be seamlessly incorporated with the e-trade engine to offer the quality of carrier clients expects and to realize the cost efficiencies B2B E-Commerce can offer. Choosing a flexible E-Commerce platforms and a device integrator skilled with the complete business system is a need to for achievement.
Like selecting the Internet as a income channel, it’s also critical to pick the proper companions, which includes an integration companion who’s skilled in assisting to move in advance swiftly throughout the entire E-commercial enterprise procedure. We have to be given that any pass to E-Commerce is not about incremental improvement, as an alternative essential redecorate of the key enterprise approaches.
With the presence on the internet, we will correctly and efficaciously transact enterprise with our customers 24*7. But so can our competition. Survivals and success in E-Commerce entails greater than certainly building a storefront to promote online. 
3. BUSINESS-TO-CONSUMER (B2C)
While the time period E-Commerce refers to all on line transactions, B2C stands for “Business-to-Consumer” and applies to any enterprise or company that sells its products or services to clients over the Internet for his or her own use.
In the late 90s, dotcoms– which have been speedy gaining in size and market capitalization — posed a danger to standard brick and mortar companies. In many methods, these dotcoms seemed to be rewriting the guidelines of enterprise — they had the customers without the costs of maintaining bodily shops, little stock, limitless get admission to to capital and little problem about real profits. The idea was to get big rapid and worry about earnings later. And a popular thought robotically comes into our thoughts: ” Learn to swim while the tide is out. Learn from the kinds of clients which can be accessible now. It is a small market- play with it; learn how to price business in this market, discover ways to examine hazard. If you could do it well, the stakes gets higher and you will succeed where others may not.”
3.1 What are the important demanding situations of B2C e-trade
Getting browsers to shop for matters — Your E-Commerce site can not stay on visitors on my own. Getting visitors to the website is simplest half the battle. Whether they buy something is what determines if you win.Some approaches to enhance the B2C conversion fee encompass improving navigation, simplifying checkout process (along with one-step checkout and easily changed passwords), and sending out e-mails with unique gives.
Building consumer loyalty — With so many web sites obtainable, how are you going to construct a robust dating with customers? Here are some pointers:
Focus on personalization: A big range of software packages are to be had to assist e-trade websites create specific boutiques that concentrate on particular customers.
Create a smooth-to-use customer service utility. Providing just an electronic mail cope with can be frustrating to customers with questions. Live chat or, a minimum of, a cellphone range will help.
Focus on making your website online clean to apply.
Fulfillment — E-Commerce has expanded the focal point on patron delight and transport fulfillment. Companies should enhance their logistical structures with a view to assure on-time transport. Providing instant gratification for clients still isn’t always clean, however a success B2C E-Commerce operations are finding that success complications can be eased with accelerated awareness and investment in supply chain and logistical technology. 
three.2 Six Keys to B2C E-Commerce achievement
So, what does it genuinely take to capture the E-customer and generate online insurance income? Based on Insurance & Technology’s interviews with both early adopters and enterprise analysts, there appear like six key fulfillment factors:
Strategic Goals Assessment/Customer Needs Assessment What are your dreams as a business enterprise? Who are your customers? What are their desires? These may also sound like fundamental questions, but each insurers and analysts emphasize that a employer’s Web presence should replicate this facts.
Create a Usable, Targeted and Sticky Web Site Usability and placement overall performance are some of the key elements insurers want to preserve in mind when growing their B2C E-Commerce strategies. Insurers also want to be privy to all in their numerous constituencies while growing B2C initiatives. The Web can reach multiple audiences and none should be neglected. A suitable Web website online will communicate with clients as well as commercial enterprise companions, dealers, suppliers and companies. Stickiness, or the achievement of a Web site in attracting and maintaining new and returning traffic, is some other achievement factor. Turning the website into greater of an data portal with real-time news feeds with maintaining content updated and synchronized will assist preserve customers coming back.
Integration The Internet is not a stand-by myself platform or medium. To be an effective provider and distribution channel, it should be integrated with lower back-give up legacy structures, agent structures, call centers, advertising projects and pricing and underwriting structures. The Internet is clearly some other purchaser relationship channel and integration with other customer service capabilities is clearly a variety of-one precedence.
Innovate with Web Applications and Real-Time Transactions B2C on line packages variety from the exceedingly fundamental, together with updating policy facts, to the complicated, which includes comparative rate quoting and digital claims submission. Regardless of the unique capabilities a employer plans to feature to its Web website online, they have to serve the wishes of the E-purchaser. This manner that net sites ought to have interactivity and instantaneous gratification.
Partnerships Although insurers need to be selective in initiating on-line partnerships, such agreements have the capacity to increase market attain and upload functions in a rather low-fee way. According to a current Gartner Group look at, 46 percentage of coverage companies lively at the Web have partnerships with banks, 30 percentage have partnerships with other insurance organizations and 22 percentage have partnerships with investment firms. Partnerships with insurance portals offer comparative quoting skills and can generate commercial enterprise.
Put Tools in Place To Keep Learning E-patron is a transferring goal. Investor should continually say that they’re still playing and constantly shooting records from all in their channels. They need to focus on organizations, used third-birthday party checks and have employed consumer interface specialists. “The process is iterative: You simply hold studying.” 
four. INFRASTRUCTURE INTEGRATION
In this net enabled international, customers rule. The capability to offer mass customization has emerge as a realistic fact. To unexpectedly meet these necessities, time to deployment of recent or enhanced software is shrinking dramatically. These programs must be constructed to be smooth to apply, nimble, open, extensible, and to be had across all platforms and these kind of stressful characteristics must be finished at minimum price.
Replacement of legacy device application is luxurious so it is visible that people started out to aggregate facts from disparate assets and combine them with seamless records glide, the demand to talk with an extensive form of cellular gadgets and the dearth of skills and know-how that are further compounded with the aid of shrinking time-to-deployment necessities.
These software program integration technology lower development and deployment expenses through doing the following:
Supplying the communique and integration code so software builders can focus on the fee-added commercial enterprise logic;
Providing a standard platform on which to build, set up, and control dispensed packages;
Reducing the IT skills required to supply tough company requirements;
Providing rapid application development equipment to cast off custom coding and simplify integration; and
Enabling the reuse of integration additives over many tasks.
Four.1 What is needed for Integration
Requirements Traditional necessities definition based totally on the functionality preferred is yielding to a definition Based on time-to-deployment and the capability to combine destiny technology. New infrastructure necessities are rising which locations extra importance at the assignment of planning the migration course to newer technologies.
Technology selection For the first-class end result the proper technology should usually be picked up. Technology need to be such that the incorporated solution fulfill the following criteria’s: Extensibility and reusability, Flexibility, Efficiency, Interoperability and breadth, Cost effectiveness, Ease of renovation, Deployment ease and efficiency, Ease of management, Industry acceptability, Enterprise integration, Technological innovation. 
4.2 Benefits of Integration
It has been surveyed that the end customers are benefited in various approaches after the crowning glory of
Integration assignment. Benefits hence acquired are:
Simple and entire development platform,
Network-aware development and run-time platform,
Technologically unified intranet, extranet and Internet,
Central administration of recent software versions,
Easy get right of entry to to organisation IT resources,
Rich and exceedingly useful consumer interface thing,
Simple and strong safety version. 
5. SECURITY ISSUES
Security is a prime difficulty in developing E-Commerce due to the fact this might be the most crucial cause humans hesitates to buy matters on the Net. Buying at the Net calls for your credit card wide variety and other private facts. But broadcasting your credit score card wide variety through the ether? It sounds pretty dicey. So, it’s a mission for companies to make their web page relaxed and safe so that human beings can fully rely on them.
5.1 What does security imply
Whatever the environment, paper or digital, securing it necessarily implies the prevention of
Destruction of information and
Unauthorized availability of data.
Five.2 Security problems
The issues that confront us with regards to securing electronic transaction are consequently:
Information should be protected from prying eyes of unauthorized internal customers, outside hackers and from being intercepted throughout transmission on communique networks by means of making it unintelligible to the attacker. The content have to be converted in one of these way that it isn’t decipherable by absolutely everyone who does not understand the transformation information.
On retrieval or receipt at the opposite stop of a verbal exchange network the information have to seem exactly as became saved are despatched. It need to be possible to generate an alert on any amendment, addition or deletion to the original content. Integrity also precludes statistics “replay” i.E., a sparkling replica of the information is generated or resent the use of the authorization functions of the earlier proper message. Suitable mechanisms are required to ensure quit-to end message content material and copy authentication.
The facts that is being stored or transmitted throughout verbal exchange networks should be available on every occasion required and to anything quantity as favored inside pre-set up time constraints. Network errors, strength outages, operational mistakes, utility software program errors, hardware troubles and viruses are a number of the reasons of unavailability of statistics. The mechanisms for implementation of counter measures to those threats are to be had however are beyond the scope of cease-to-cease message safety for implementing Electronic Commerce.
It have to be feasible any character or object from masquerading as a few different man or woman or item. When a message is obtained it ought to therefore be possible to verify it has certainly been sent via the character or object claiming to be the originator. Similarly, it should additionally be possible to make sure that the message is sent to the individual or object for whom it is supposed. This implies the want for dependable identity of the originator and recipient of facts.
After sending/authorizing a message, the sender ought to not be able to, at a later date, deny having accomplished so. Similarly, the recipient of a message needs to now not be capable of denying receipt at a later date. It must, therefore, be feasible to bind message acknowledgments with their originations.
Audit facts should be recorded in such a manner that each one special confidentiality and integrity necessities are met.
five.3 Security answers
Cryptography is the maximum widely used method for implementing generation solution for the above noted protection issues. It contains encryption — the process of creating information unintelligible to the unauthorized reader and decryption – booking encryption to make the statistics readable all over again. Conventional cryptography makes use of a mystery code or key to encrypt information. The same mystery secret’s utilized by the receiver to decrypt the information.
Password is the maximum commonplace mechanism used for authenticate humans. Passwords are anticipated to be known only with the aid of the owner. The onus is on the owner to hold the password secret.
Digital signature may be used now not simplest to affirm the authenticity of the message and the claimed identity of the sender, but additionally to verify the message integrity. The recipient, however, must no longer be capable of use the obtained virtual signature to falsely “sign” messages on behalf of the authentic sender. Here a message is encrypted with the sender’s private key to generate the ‘signature’. The message is then sent to the vacation spot along side this signature. The recipient decrypts the signature the usage of the sender’s public key, and if the end result suits with the replica of the message acquired, the recipient can be sure that the message turned into despatched by the claimed originator and that the message has now not been changed in the course of transmission, when you consider that only the originator is in ownership of the corresponding encryption key. It is a key cryptosystems.
A greater effective solution can be acquired by means of the use of a biometric authentication device, inclusive of a fingerprint scanner, in the e-wallet.
Smart card are similar to credit score cards except that they have chips embedded in them. These cards may be used to save value and convey authentication records.
Changing market scenario puts stress on enterprise humans to evolve new and clever strategies to reach the pinnacle of fulfillment. New innovations are hastily turning into a part of IT infrastructure. But to get powerful remarks we need a all in one team technique consisting of business folks that can correctly perceive enterprise necessities, technology necessities and fulfillment standards. People can lessen the hazard and time-to-deployment via considering the elements described above.
Aberdeen Group, Inc. “e-Business Infrastructure Integration: Practical Approaches,” An Executive White Paper, Boston, Massachusetts 02108, USA, November 2001
Kamlesh K. Bajaj and Debjani Nag, “E-Commerce: The Cutting Edge of Business,” Tata-McGrawHill, 1999
Efraim Turban, Jae Lee, David King, H. Michael Chung, “Electronic Commerce-A Managerial Perspective,” Pearson Education Asia, 2001
Ravi Kalakota and Andrew B. Whinston, “Frontiers of Electronic Commerce,” Addison Wesley, 2001
Susmita Das, Malabika Dinda, Sudipa Batabyal, Sangeeta Mishra, “A Study on Various Aspects of E-Commerce Paradigms with One Design Implementation,” B.Tech.(Honours) Thesis, Haldia Institute of Technology (Vidyasagar University), 2002
Simon S. Y. Shim, Vishnu S. Pendyala, Meera Sundaram, and Jerry Z. Gao, “Business to Business E-Commerce Frameworks,” Computer, IEEE Computer Society, Volume 33, Number 10, October 2000.
Wenli Wang, Zoltan Hidvegi, Andrew D. Bailey Jr., and Andrew B. Whinston, “E-Process Design and Assurance Using Model Checking,” Computer, IEEE Computer Society, Volume 33, Number 10, October 2000
Tim Ebringer, Peter Thorne, and Yuliang Zheng, “Parasitic Authentication To Protect Your E-Wallet,” Computer, IEEE Computer Scciety, Volume 33, Number 10, October 2000
Abhijit Chaudhury, Debasish Mallick, and H. Raghav Rao, “Web Channels in E-Commerce,” Communications of the ACM, Volume forty four, Number 1, January 2001
Ted Becker, “Rating the Impact of New Technologies on Democracy,” Communications of the ACM, Volume forty four, Number 1, January 2001
Joe Mohen and Julia Glidden, “The Case for Internet Voting,” Communications of the ACM, Volume forty four, Number 1, January 2001
Deborah M. Philips and hans A. Von Spakovsky, “Gauging the Risks of Internet Elections,” Communications of the ACM, Volume forty four, Number 1, January 2001
Lance J. Hoffman and Lorrie Cranor, Guest Editors, ” Internet Voting for Public Officials,” Communications of the ACM, Volume forty four, Number 1, January 2001
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, “Computer Networks,” Third Edition, Prentice-Hall
Debajyoti Mukhopadhyay and Sangeeta Mishra, “How to Meet The Challenges Of Managing E-Commerce Successfully,” Journal of the Calcutta Management Association, Volume VII, Number 2: August 2002
Prof. Debajyoti Mukhopadhyay is Director of Web Intelligence & Distributed Computing Research Lab (WIDiCoReL) and is a Professor of Computer Science & Information Technology. He become a Professor at West Bengal University of Technology affiliated engineering colleges (2001-2008). He turned into a Visiting Professor inside the Division of Electronics & Information Engineering at Chonbuk National University within the Republic of Korea (October 2006 to February 2007). He has also taught at Stevens Institute of Technology, New Jersey (1982-1984) and at Bengal Engineering College affiliated to Calcutta University, West Bengal (1980-1981). He had in advance worked in IT enterprise for sixteen years. During 1982-1994 and in 1999, he become in the USA. He had labored at Bell Communications Research, New Jersey, USA in its Computing Systems and Architecture Lab.
Sangeeta Mishra received her B.Tech. In Computer Science & Engineering diploma from Haldia Institute of Technology, India in 2002. After running in IT enterprise for over years in India, she has moved to California and is currently running in an IT Organization inside the USA.